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Knee

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint

The knee is made up of four bones. The femur or thighbone is the bone connecting the hip to the knee. The tibia or shinbone connects the knee to the ankle.

Find out more in this web based movie.

Conditions

Knee Pain

The knee is one of the largest joints in the body, formed by the lower end of the femur, upper end of the tibia and the patella or knee cap. Several ligaments

For more information about Knee Pain, click on below tabs.

Anterior Knee Pain

Anterior knee pain is a characterized by a chronic pain over the front and center of the knee joint. It is common in athletes, active adolescents (especially girls) and overweight individuals.

For more information about Anterior Knee Pain, click on below tabs.

Runner’s Knee

Runner’s knee, also called patellofemoral pain syndrome refers to pain under and around your kneecap. Runner’s knee includes a number of medical conditions such as anterior knee pain syndrome, patellofemoral malalignment, and chondromalacia patella that cause pain around the front of the knee.

For more information about Runner’s Knee, click on below tabs.

Osgood Schlatter Disease

Osgood-Schlatter disease refers to a condition of an overuse injury that occurs in the knee region of growing children and adolescents. This is caused by inflammation of the tendon located below the knee cap (patellar tendon).
For more information about Osgood Schlatter Disease, click on below tabs.

Chondromalacia Patella

The patella, also called the kneecap is a small bone present on the front of your knee joint. The underside of the patella is covered by cartilage that allows smooth gliding of the knee with movement.

For more information about Chondromalacia Patella, click on below tabs.

Jumpers Knee

Jumper’s knee, also known as “patellar tendinitis” is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg.

For more information about Jumpers Knee, click on below tabs.

Bursitis

A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac found between soft tissues and bones. It lubricates and acts as a cushion to decrease friction between bones when they move. Bursitis refers to the inflammation and swelling of the bursa.

For more information about Bursitis, click on below tabs.

Bakers Cyst

The knee consists of a fluid called synovial fluid, which reduces friction between the bones of the knee joint while you move your leg. Sometimes this fluid is produced in excess, resulting in its accumulation in the back of your knee.

For more information about Bakers Cyst, click on below tabs.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Iliotibial band syndrome is an overuse injury resulting from the inflammation of iliotibial band. Iliotibial band is a tough group of fibers that begins at the iliac crest of hip and runs along the outside of the thigh, to get attached to the outer side of the shin bone just below the knee joint.

For more information about Iliotibial Band Syndrome, click on below tabs.

Lateral Patellar Compression Syndrome

Lateral patellar compression syndrome refers to pain under and around your kneecap. It is a common complaint among runners, jumpers, and other athletes such as skiers, cyclists, and soccer players.

For more information about Lateral Patellar Compression Syndrome, click on below tabs.

Osteochondritis Dissecans

Osteochondritis dissecans is a joint condition in which a piece of cartilage, along with a thin layer of the bone separates from the end of the bone because of inadequate blood supply.

For more information about Osteochondritis Dissecans, click on below tabs.

Shin Splints

“Shin splints” is used to describe the pain and inflammation of the tendons, muscles and bone tissue around the tibia or shine bone (a large bone in the lower leg).

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Knee Injury

Pain, swelling and stiffness are the common symptoms of any damage or injury to the knee. If care is not taken during the initial phases of injury, it may lead to joint damage that may end up destroying your knee.

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Unstable Knee

The knee joint is one of the largest joints in the body. This highly complex joint has several tissues supporting and stabilizing its movement

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Goosefoot Bursitis of the Knee

A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac found between soft tissues and bones. It lubricates and acts as a cushion to decrease friction between bones when they move. Bursitis refers to the inflammation and swelling of the bursa.

For more information about Goosefoot Bursitis of the Knee, click on below tabs.

Knee Sprain

Knee sprain is a common injury that occurs from overstretching of the ligaments that support the knee joint. A knee sprain occurs when the knee ligaments are twisted or turned beyond its normal range causing the ligaments to tear.

For more information about Knee Sprain, click on below tabs.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tears

The anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is one of the major ligaments of the knee that is located in the middle of the knee and runs from the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone).

For more information about Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tears, click on below tabs.

Medical Collateral Ligament Tears (MCL)

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the ligament that is located on the inner part of the knee joint. It runs from the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps in stabilizing the knee. Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury can result in a stretch, partial tear, or complete tear of the ligament.

For more information about Medical Collateral Ligament Tears (MCL), click on below tabs.

MCL Sprain

The medial collateral ligament (MCL), a band of tissue present on the inside of your knee joint, connects your thigh bone and shin bone (bone of your lower leg).

For more information about MCL Sprain, click on below tabs.

Meniscal Tears

Meniscus tear is the commonest knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A suddenly bend or twist in your knee cause the meniscus to tear. This is a traumatic meniscus tear.

For more information about Meniscal Tears, click on below tabs.

Ligament Injuries

The knee is a complex joint which consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments and tendons that make joint movements easy and at the same time more susceptible to various kinds of injuries.

For more information about Ligament Injuries, click on below tabs.

Multiligament Instability

The knee is a complex joint of the body which is vital for movement. The four major ligaments of the knee are anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament. They play an important role in maintaining the stability of the knee.

For more information about Multiligament Instability, click on below tabs.

Knee Arthritis

Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain free movement in the joint.

For more information about Knee Arthritis, click on below tabs.

Patellar Dislocation

Patella (knee cap) is a protective bone attached to the quadriceps muscles of the thigh by quadriceps tendon. Patella attaches with the femur bone and forms a patellofemoral joint.

For more information about Patellar Dislocation, click on below tabs.

Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar tendinitis, also known as “jumper’s knee” is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg.

For more information about Patellar Tendinitis, click on below tabs.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of four major ligaments of the knee is situated at the back of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward motion of the shinbone.

For more information about Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries, click on below tabs.

Chondral (Articular Cartilage) Defects

Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of the body during activities such as running and jumping.

For more information about Chondral (Articular Cartilage) Defects, click on below tabs.

Patellar Instability

Patellar (knee cap) instability results from one or more dislocations or partial dislocations (subluxations). Patella is the small piece of bone in front of the knee that slides up and down the femoral groove (groove in the femur bone) during bending and stretching movements.

For more information about Patellar Instability, click on below tabs.

Patellofemoral Instability Knee

Patellofemoral Instability results from one or more dislocations or partial dislocations, also called subluxations. This misalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the knee in place.

For more information about Patellofemoral Instability Knee, click on below tabs.

Patellofemoral Dislocation

Patella (knee cap) is a protective bone attached to the quadriceps muscles of the thigh by quadriceps tendon. Patella attaches with the femur bone and forms a patellofemoral joint.

For more information about Patellofemoral Dislocation, click on below tabs.

Patella Fracture

The knee cap or patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body and one of the components of the knee joint, present at the front of the knee. The undersurface of the kneecap and the lower end of the femur are coated with articular cartilage, which helps in smooth movement of the knee joint.

For more information about Patella Fracture, click on below tabs.

Recurrent Patella Dislocation

The patella (knee cap) is a small bone that shields your knee joint. It is found in front of your knee, in a groove called the trochlear groove that sits at the junction of the femur (thighbone) and tibia (shinbone). Articular cartilage present below the patella and end of the femur cushion and help the bones glide smoothly over each other when the legs move.

For more information about Recurrent Patella Dislocation, click on below tabs.

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

Quadriceps tendon is a thick tissue located at the top of the kneecap. The quadriceps tendon works together with the quadriceps muscles to allow us to straighten our leg.

For more information about Quadriceps Tendon Rupture, click on below tabs.

Patella Tendon Rupture or Tear

Patella tendon rupture is the rupture of the tendon that connects the patella (knee cap) to the top portion of the tibia (shin bone). The patellar tendon works together with the quadriceps muscle and the quadriceps tendon to allow your knee to straighten out.

For more information about Patella Tendon Rupture or Tear, click on below tabs.

Osteonecrosis of the Knee

Osteonecrosis is a condition in which death of a section of bone occurs because of lack of blood supply to it. It is one of the most common causes of knee pain in older women.

For more information about Osteonecrosis of the Knee, click on below tabs.

Knee Angular Deformities (Knock legs and Bow legs)

Angular deformities of the knee are common during childhood and usually are variations in the normal growth pattern. Angular deformity of the knee is a part of normal growth and development during early childhood.

For more information about Knee Angular Deformities (Knock legs and Bow legs), click on below tabs.

Treatments

Non-Surgical Treatments

The knee is a complex joint which consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments and tendons that make joint movements easy and at the same time more susceptible to various kinds of injuries.

For more information about Patella Tendon Rupture or Tear, click on below tabs.

Pharmacological

The knee is a complex joint which consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments and tendons that make joint movements easy and at the same time more susceptible to various kinds of injuries.

For more information about Pharmacological, click on below tabs.

Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a newer modality of treatment for the management of many orthopaedic conditions including sport injuries. RBC (red blood cells), WBC (white blood cells), plasma, and platelets are the major components of blood

For more information about Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection, click on below tabs.

Viscosupplementation (Synvisc) Injection

Viscosupplementation refers to the injection of a hyaluronan preparation into the joint. Hyaluronan is a natural substance present in the joint fluid that assists in lubrication.

For more information about Viscosupplementation (Synvisc) Injection, click on below tabs.

Cortisone Injection

Cortisone is a corticosteroid released by the adrenal gland in response to stress and is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Artificial preparations containing cortisone are injected directly into the affected joint to relieve pain and reduce inflammation.

For more information about Cortisone Injection, click on below tabs.

Physical Therapy

Physical Therapy is an exercise program that helps you to improve movement, relieve pain, encourage blood flow for faster healing, and restore your physical function and fitness level.

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Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Knee Arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure performed using an arthroscope, a viewing instrument, to look into the knee joint to diagnose or treat a knee problem. It is a relatively safe procedure and a majority of the patient’s discharge from the hospital on the same day of surgery.

For more information about Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint, click on below tabs.

Knee Replacement and Reconstruction

Knee Osteotomy

Knee Osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which the upper shinbone (tibia) or lower thighbone (femur) is cut and realigned.

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High Tibial Osteotomy

High tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pressure on the damaged site of an arthritic knee joint.

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Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy

Tibial tubercle osteotomy is a surgical procedure which is performed along with other procedures to treat patellar instability, patellofemoral pain, and osteoarthritis.

For more information about Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy, click on below tabs.

Unicompartmental Knee Replacement

Unicompartmental knee replacement is a minimally invasive surgery in which only the damaged compartment of the knee is replaced with an implant. It is also called a partial knee replacement.

For more information about Unicompartmental Knee Replacement, click on below tabs.

Patellofemoral Knee Replacement

Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain free movement in the joint.

For more information about Patellofemoral Knee Replacement, click on below tabs.

What’s new in Knee Replacement?

For a patient considering knee replacement surgery, there are new developments under study which can help enhance their quality of life.

For more information about What’s new in Knee Replacement?, click on below tabs.

Computer Navigation for Total Knee Replacement

A total knee replacement surgery is the last resort to relieve pain and restore function in knee damaged by arthritis or an injury when non-surgical treatments do not relieve the condition.

For more information about Computer Navigation for Total Knee Replacement, click on below tabs.

Total Knee Replacement (TKR)

Total knee replacement, also called total knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the worn out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint are removed and replaced with artificial parts.

For more information about Total Knee Replacement (TKR), click on below tabs.

Partial Knee Replacement

Unicompartmental knee replacement is a minimally invasive surgery in which only the damaged compartment of the knee is replaced with an implant. It is also called a partial knee replacement.

For more information about Partial Knee Replacement, click on below tabs.

Custom Knee Replacement Surgery

Total knee replacement is often the last option when conservative options fail to relieve the pain and retard the progression of joint damage in patients with severe arthritis.

For more information about Custom Knee Replacement Surgery, click on below tabs.

Minimally Invasive Knee Joint Replacement

Total knee replacement is a very successful surgical treatment for knee arthritis. Over the years, minimally invasive knee replacement surgical techniques have been developed to lessen tissue trauma and improve patient outcomes.

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Revision Knee Replacement

Revision knee replacement surgery involves replacing part or all of your previous knee prosthesis with a new prosthesis. Although total knee replacement surgery is successful, sometimes the procedure can fail due to various reasons and require a second revision surgery.

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Robotic Assisted Partial Knee Surgery

Robotic assisted partial knee surgery is an innovative alternative to the conventional surgical procedure in patients suffering from degenerative knee diseases such as osteoarthritis.

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Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction is a surgical procedure indicated in patients with more severe patellar instability. Medial patellofemoral ligament is a band of tissue that extends from the femoral medial epicondyle to the superior aspect of the patella

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Distal Realignment Procedures

Distal realignment procedures, also known as TTT or tibial tubercle transfer procedures are performed to reposition the kneecap by realigning the tendon under the kneecap to the underlying tibial tubercle.

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Arthroscopic Reconstruction of the Knee for Ligament Injuries

The knee is the most complex joint in the body and is formed by the articulation between the thigh bone (femur) and the shinbone (tibia). A knee cap is present over the front of the joint to provide extra protection.

For more information about Arthroscopic Reconstruction of the Knee for Ligament Injuries, click on below tabs.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the centre of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately it doesn’t heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incisions and low complication rates.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

For more information about Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction, click on below tabs.

ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

For more information about ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon, click on below tabs.

Outpatient Total Knee Replacement

Total knee replacement is the surgical treatment for knee arthritis, where the damaged knee is removed and replaced with an artificial knee implant.

For more information about Outpatient Total Knee Replacement, click on below tabs.

Tricompartmental Knee Replacement

Tricompartmental knee replacement, also called total knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the worn out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint are removed and replaced with artificial parts.

For more information about Tricompartmental Knee Replacement, click on below tabs.

After Knee Replacement

Knee replacement is a surgery performed to replace parts of a diseased knee joint with an artificial prosthesis. The goal of knee replacement is to eliminate pain and return you to your normal activities.

For more information about After Knee Replacement, click on below tabs.

Patient Specific Knee Options

MAKOPlasty

MAKOplasty® Partial Knee Resurfacing is enabled by the surgeon controlled RIO® robotic arm system, offering increased accuracy to optimize surgical results.

For more information about MAKOPlasty, click on below tabs.

Custom fitted total knee arthroplasty

Custom fitted total knee arthroplasty is a newer technology in total knee replacement surgery. It is an advanced procedure using an individualized patient-specific knee implant for replacement of all three components of the knee.

For more information about Custom fitted total knee arthroplasty, click on below tabs.

Knee Implants

Knee implants are artificial devices that form the essential parts of the knee during a knee replacement surgery. The knee implants vary by size, shape, and material. Implants are made of biocompatible materials that are accepted by the body without producing any rejection response.

For more information about Knee Implants, click on below tabs.

Cartilage Restoration

Patellar Tendon Repair

Patella tendon rupture is the rupture of the tendon that connects the patella (knee cap) to the top portion of the tibia (shin bone).

For more information about Patellar Tendon Repair, click on below tabs.

Knee Ligament Reconstruction

The knee is the most complex joint in the body formed by the articulation between the thigh bone (femur) and the shinbone (tibia).

For more information about MAKOPlasty, click on below tabs.

Cartilage Replacement

Cartilage replacement is a surgical procedure performed to replace the worn out cartilage with the new cartilage. It is usually performed to treat patients with small areas of cartilage damage usually caused by sports or traumatic injuries.

For more information about Cartilage Replacement, click on below tabs.

Cartilage Repair and Transplantation

Articular Cartilage is the white tissue lining the end of bones where these bones connect to form joints. Cartilage acts as cushioning material and helps in smooth gliding of bones during movement.

For more information about Cartilage Repair and Transplantation, click on below tabs.

OATS (Osteochondral Autologous Transfer Surgery)

OATS is “osteochondral autograft transfer system”. It is one of the two types of cartilage transfer procedures and the other procedure is “Mosaicplasty”. Cartilage transfer procedures involve moving healthy cartilage from a non-weight bearing area of the knee to a damaged area of the cartilage in the knee.

For more information about OATS (Osteochondral Autologous Transfer Surgery), click on below tabs.

Resurfacing

Bicompartmental Knee Resurfacing

The knee can be divided into three compartments: Patellofemoral, the compartment on the front of the knee which contains the knee cap, medial compartment, the compartment on the inside of the knee, and lateral compartment which is the area on the outside of the knee joint.

For more information about Bicompartmental Knee Resurfacing, click on below tabs.

Partial Knee Resurfacing

Partial knee replacement is an alternative to total knee replacement in patients with arthritis on only one side of the knee.

For more information about Partial Knee Resurfacing, click on below tabs.

Others

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI)

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a procedure to treat the articular cartilage defects of the knee. This procedure is effective for treating small areas of cartilage damage that causes pain and swelling and restricts the range of motion.

For more information about Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), click on below tabs.

Subchondroplasty

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common form of arthritis that causes joint pain and stiffness. It is a progressive disease in which the joint cartilage gradually wears away and may lead to disability.

For more information about Subchondroplasty, click on below tabs.

Partial Meniscectomy

Partial meniscectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the torn portion of the meniscus from the knee joint. Meniscus is the C-shaped cartilage located in the knee that lubricates the knee joint, acts as shock-absorber, and controls the flexion and extension of joint.

For more information about Partial Meniscectomy, click on below tabs.

Meniscal Surgery

Meniscus tear is the commonest knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A suddenly bend or twist in your knee cause the meniscus to tear. This is a traumatic meniscus tear.

For more information about Meniscal Surgery, click on below tabs.

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